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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing many of these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the. Practical Lessons In Metal Turning - A Handbook For Young Engineers And Amateur Mechanics - Kindle edition by Percival Marshall. Download it once and.
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Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. This is known as side-rake, and is shown in the end elevation view in fig. The tool really removes more metal with its side edge than with the front edge, and it is found in practice that the effect of the side-rake is to materially lessen the power required to feed the tool along, since the cutting edge thus presented penetrates the metal so much more easily. A tool with side-rake is, however, only suitable for traversing in one direction, but as nearly all turning work is done with the tool moving from right to left this is no real disadvantage.
The tool shown in figs.
It is an excellent shape to use, and once made will last a much longer time than a straight tool as shown in figs. In the straight form, the cutting angle is exactly the same, and at first the tool would do as good work as the other.
It is, however, more trouble to grind on the top-face, and the more it is ground away the weaker it becomes, this being very evident when it has been ground down as far as the dotted line shown in fig. In the swan-neck form of tool, the grinding away of the top-face does not affect the strength at all.
For all tools used in a horizontal position, as most slide-rest tools are, the cutting point should be exactly level with the centre of the work. If the point be placed too high, as in fig. When a tool has been re-sharpened, and the upper surface thereby ground away, a piece of packing must be placed under the body of the tool to raise the point to the correct position.
The packing must, however, raise the tool bodily in a horizontal position and not merely tilt the front up, as in this case the clearance angle of the tool would be destroyed, as shown in fig. Similarly, if a tool when first made be too high, it should not be tilted down to bring it level with the centre of the work, as shown in fig. A few actual trials in the lathe with the position of the tool altered in various ways will soon enable the reader to grasp the importance of these facts.
It may be here pointed out that the smaller the diameter of the work to be turned, the more important it is to apply the tool at the correct level. It will be observed that this rule is quoted as applying to tools used in a horizontal position. A little thought will show the reader that the principle underlying this rule is that the cutting angle of the tool must be brought to bear upon the work so as to provide the correct clearance angle and top-rake. With a properly shaped horizontal tool this can only occur when the cutting point is level with the centre, but if the body of the tool be raised to an inclined position and the point be proportionately raised above the centre so as to preserve the same relationship between the cutting angle and the clearance angle, the tool will cut equally well.
This is illustrated in fig.
It will be noted that the cutting and clearance angles occupy exactly the same relationship to the work in each case. This will be more readily apparent if the reader will regard the inclined tool first in the position as drawn, and then in the position it assumes by turning the book round until the arrow A becomes vertical.