Bar-Hebraeus identified Ahasuerus explicitly as Artaxerxes II ; however, the names are not necessarily equivalent: Hebrew has a form of the name Artaxerxes distinct from Ahasuerus , and a direct Greek rendering of Ahasuerus is used by both Josephus and the Septuagint for occurrences of the name outside the Book of Esther. Jewish tradition relates that Esther was the mother of a King Darius and so some try to identify Ahasuerus with Artaxerxes I and Esther with Kosmartydene.
The view that it was Mordecai would be consistent with the identification of Ahasuerus with Cyaxares. Identifications with other Persian monarchs have also been suggested. Jacob Hoschander has argued that evidence of the historicity of Haman and his father Hamedatha is seen in Omanus and Anadatus mentioned by Strabo as being honoured with Anahita in the city of Zela.
Hoschander argues that these were not deities as Strabo supposed but garbled forms of "Haman" and "Hamedatha" who were being worshipped as martyrs. The names are indeed unattested in Persian texts as gods, however the Talmud Sanhedrin 61b and Rashi both record a practice of deifying Haman and Josephus speaks of him being worshipped. Christine Hayes contrasts the Book of Esther with apocalyptic writings , the Book of Daniel in particular: both Esther and Daniel depict an existential threat to the Jewish people, but while Daniel commands the Jews to wait faithfully for God to resolve the crisis, in Esther the crisis is resolved entirely through human action and national solidarity.
God, in fact, is not mentioned, Esther is portrayed as assimilated to Persian culture, and Jewish identity in the book is an ethnic category rather than a religious one. This contrasts with traditional Jewish commentaries, such as the commentary of the Vilna Gaon , which states "But in every verse it discusses the great miracle.
However, this miracle was in a hidden form, occurring through apparently natural processes, not like the Exodus from Egypt, which openly revealed the might of God. An additional six chapters appear interspersed in Esther in the Septuagint , the Greek translation of the Bible. This was noted by Jerome in compiling the Latin Vulgate. Additionally, the Greek text contains many small changes in the meaning of the main text.
Jerome recognized the former as additions not present in the Hebrew Text and placed them at the end of his Latin translation. This placement and numbering system is used in Catholic Bible translations based primarily on the Vulgate, such as the Douay—Rheims Bible and the Knox Bible.
In contrast, the revision of the Vulgate, the Nova Vulgata , incorporates the additions to Esther directly into the narrative itself, as do most modern Catholic English translations based on the original Hebrew and Greek e. The numbering system for the additions differs with each translation.
The Nova Vulgata accounts for the additional verses by numbering them as extensions of the verses immediately following or preceding them e. These additions include: . The Council of Trent , the summation of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation , reconfirmed the entire book, both Hebrew text and Greek additions, as canonical. The Book of Esther is used twice in commonly used sections of the Catholic Lectionary. In both cases, the text used is not only taken from a Greek addition, the readings also are the prayer of Mordecai , and nothing of Esther 's own words is ever used.
In contrast, the additions are included in the Biblical apocrypha , usually printed in a separate section if at all in Protestant bibles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see The Book of Esther film. Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Torah: Portion by Portion.
Los Angeles: Torah Aura Productions. Retrieved 13 October Retrieved April 19, David; Sabar, Shalom Skolnik, Fred; Berenbaum, Michael eds. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ruth and Esther Old Testament Guides. In Newsom, Carol A. Women's Bible Commentary. Louisville: Westminster John Knox. Becking, Bob E.
Between Evidence and Ideology. Leiden: Brill. Esther Anchor Bible. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press. Myers; Astrid B. Beck Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible Wm.
The Oxford Bible Commentary. Walter J. Eerdmans Pub.
Bibliotheca sacra , no. Open Yale Courses. Yale University.
Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. Retrieved Clines, David J. The Esther Scroll. Jobes, Karen H. Beal, Timothy K Timothy Beal. NY: Routledge, Postmodern theoretical apparatus, e. Fox, Michael V. Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther , 2nd ed. White, Sidnie Ann.
https://believecatalog.com/wp-content/telephone/gypi-logiciel-espion.html Fischer, James A. Collegeville Bible Commentary.
Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, Hudson, J.
People. [PDF] Believe and You're There, vol. 8: When Esther Saved Her People by Alice W. Johnson, Allison The Beginner's Bible Queen Esther Saves Her. People. [BOOKS] Believe and You're There, vol. 8: When Esther Saved Her People by Alice W. Johnson,. Allison H. Warner. 8: When Esther Saved Her People file PDF Book only if you are registered here. Esther Saves Her People. Esther.
From Character and Charisma series. Kingsway, Levenson, Jon D. Old Testament Library Series. McConville, John C. Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. Daily Study Bible Series. Philadelphia: Westminster, Moore, Carey A. Anchor Bible, vol. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Paton, Lewis B. International Critical Commentary. Hazony, Yoram. God and Politics in Esther. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, His hand is always moving and controlling every detail that goes in this world.
Nothing happens by coincidence or chance. In the beginning of chapter 3, we see how Haman rose in status. But Mordecai did not bow down or pay homage. In verses we see his confidence level reaches to the point in which he uses his high ranking position to go to great lengths to make a law against destroying the Jewish race. The amazing thing we see here is Haman is doing this evil deed being completely unaware that Esther, who has more favour with the king then anyone else, belongs to that same group of people in which Haman seeks to destroy. In Chapter we see just how far man can go when driven by hate and having no fear of God.
Haman is hung on the very gallows that he thought would improve his ranking in the kingdom. Throughout this story it is easy get impatient with having to wait for God to act to save His people. This is not just a story about how God swoops in and comes to the rescue, its also not a story about how Esther is deemed to be this feminine hero that we should applaud.